Tuesday, July 31, 2012

Best Android review

The best Android phones get higher above the rest with up-to-date software and admirable hardware design. Whether you desire a slim model like the HTC Incredible, or a hulking slab like the Motorola Droid X, there's a vast device for you all the most important carriers. Most new-fangled Android phones have eschewed the hardware keyboard in support of a roomier virtual keypad, the exemption being Verizon's Droid 2, which has both.

Samsung Galaxy Nexus
Reviewed MARCH 2012

Samsung Galaxy Nexus is light-years prior to other Android stars.
Features: Beautiful and speedy Android operating system, large, bright screen, fast and responsive
Weakness: Mediocre camera performance, spotty 4G signal strength, short battery life

Motorola Droid Razr Maxx
Reviewed MARCH 2012

Droid Razr Maxx offers a worthwhile boost in battery life
Features:  Long battery life, bright, vibrant display, sturdy construction, fast 4G speeds
Weakness: Text can appear jagged on screen, may be too large for some users

Motorola Droid Razr
Reviewed MARCH 2012

Droid Razr is extra thin, but so is its battery life.
Features: Extremely thin, durable, scratch-resistant design, lots of screen space, fast 4G speeds, and good call quality
Weakness: Poor battery life, lower screen quality than competitors

T-Mobile G2x
Reviewed FEBRUARY 2012

Speedy T-Mobile G2x catches the flagship title
Features: Speedy dual-core processor, android operating system, vibrant, responsive screen, excellent multimedia features, high-resolution video recording
Weakness: Not the highest-quality screen available, doesn't have fastest  version of 4G

Pantech Crossover
Reviewed FEBRUARY 2012

Affordable Android slider sports physical QWERTY keyboard
Features:  Roomy QWERTY keyboard, great battery life, decent camera
Weakness: Mixed call quality, slow data speeds, small display

LG Phoenix
Reviewed FEBRUARY 2012

The LG Phoenix is an excellent entry-level Android smartphone, but it's got stiff competition
Features:  Lightweight and easy to hold, excellent battery life, world phone
Weakness: Browser unable to play Flash videos, weak camera that lacks a dedicated button, bloated with non-removable AT&T apps

LG Thrive
Reviewed DECEMBER 2011

AT&T's first prepaid Android Smartphone is simple to use and reliable
Features: Easy user interface, world phone, long battery life, small and lightweight
Weakness: Lack of a dedicated camera button, weak camera, unable to play Flash videos in browser, built-in AT&T apps are not removable

Samsung Droid Charge
Reviewed NOVEMBER 2011

Verizon's large and in-charge 4G Smartphone
Features: Fast 4G web browsing and media streaming, call quality, vibrant, high-contrast display, high-quality photo and video output
Weakness: Short battery life, older hardware compared to recent smart phones

LG Optimus V
Reviewed AUGUST 2011

Virgin Mobile's Android Smartphone delivers great performance for its price
Features: Price, clear call quality, fast processor, responsive interface
Weakness: Cramped screen, browser has no Flash support, can't use as mobile hotspot


Samsung Galaxy Indulge
Reviewed JULY 2011

Speedy 4G phone quickly runs out of juice
Features:  4G LTE connection, fast processor, roomy QWERTY keyboard
Weakness: Short battery life, dim display, camera shutter lag


HTC Thunder Bolt
Reviewed MAY 2011

HTC Thunder Bolt's lightning-fast speed zaps battery life
Features:   Fast web browsing, large touch screen with wide viewing angle, high-quality camera, kickstand for video viewing
Weakness: Poor battery life when using 4G, occasional bugs


Motorola Atrix 4G
Reviewed MAY 2011

The versatile Motorola Atrix 4G is fast, but not 4G fast
Features:   Responsive interface, large, colorful display, can double as a net book
Weakness: Slow 4G speeds, lags when used with accessory dock


T-Mobile G2
Reviewed MARCH 2011

T-Mobile's G2 is a worthy Android heir
Features:   Roomy QWERTY keyboard, fast, easy-to-navigate menus, clear call quality
Weakness:  Slider hinge doesn't lock in place, poor speakerphone quality

Monday, July 30, 2012

Introduction to Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Technology

Introduction to Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Technology

Structure of the transistor:

       The cross-section of an n-type MOS transistor as shown in fig.-1 an n-type transistor is embedded in a p-type substrate; it is formed by the intersection of an n-type wire and a polysilicon wire. The region at the intersection called the channel, is where the transistor action takes place. The channel connects to the two n-type wires, which form the source and drain, but is itself doped to be p-type. The insulating silicon dioxide at the channel (called the gate oxide) is much thinner than it is away from the channel (called the field oxide); having a thin oxide at the channel is critical to the successful operation of the transistor.


                            Fig.-1: Cross-section of an n-type transistor.
         The transistor works as a switch because the gate-to-source 
voltage modulates the amount of current that can flow between the source
and drain. When the gate voltage (Vgs) is zero, the p-type channel is full of 
holes, while the n-type source and drain contain electrons. The p-n 
junction at source terminal forms a diode, while the junction at the drain 
forms a second diode that conducts in the opposite direction. As a result,
no current can flow from the source to the drain.
         As  Vgs  rises above zero, the situation starts to change. While the 
channel region contains predominantly p-type carriers, it also has some 
n-type carriers. The positive voltage on the polysilicon which forms the 
gate attracts the electrons. Since they are stopped by the gate oxide, 
they collect at the top of the channel along the oxide boundary. At a 
critical voltage called the threshold voltage (Vt), enough electrons 
have collected at the channel boundary to form an inversion layer-a 
layer of electrons dense enough to conduct current between the 
source and the drain.
         The size of the channel region is labeled relative to the direction of 
current flow: the channel length (L) is along the direction of current
flow between source and drain, while the width (W) is perpendicular to 
current flow. The amount of current flow is a function of the W/L ratio, 
for the same reasons that bulk resistance changes with the object’s width 
and length: widening the channel gives a larger cross-section for 
conduction, while lengthening the channel increases the distance, current 
must flow through the channel. Since we can choose W and L when we 
draw the layout, we can very simply design the transistor current 
magnitude.

Drain current characteristics:

For an n-type transistor, we have:

   Linear region ( Vds < Vgs – Vt ):
        Id = k’(W/L)[(Vgs-Vt)(Vds-0.5Vds2)]
  
 Saturation region (Vds ≥ Vgs - Vt):
        Id =0.5k’(W/L)(Vgs- Vt)2(W/L) = the width-to-length ratio of the transistor.


Both  Vt  and k’ are measured, either directly or indirectly, for fabrication a process, W/L is determined by the layout of the transistor, but since it does not change during operation, it is a constant of the device equations.

0.5 mm transconductances:

From an MOSIS process:
n-type:
k’n = 73 mA/V2           where,    Vt = 0.7 V

p-type:
k’p = 21 mA/V2,         where,     Vt = -0.8 V

Current through a transistor:

Use 0.5 mm parameters. Let W/L = 3/2. Measure at the boundary between 
linear and saturation regions.

Vgs = 2V:     Id = 0.5k’(W/L)(Vgs-Vt)2= 93 mA

Vgs = 5V:     Id = 1 mA

Parallel plate capacitance:

1.     Formula for parallel plate capacitance:       
       Cox = eox / xox
2.     Permittivity of silicon:      
       eox = 3.46 x 10-13 F/cm2
3.     Gate capacitance helps determine charge in channel which forms 
       inversion region.

Threshold voltage

1.     Components of threshold voltage Vt:
2.     Vfb = flat band voltage; depends on difference in work function between 
       gate and the substrate and on fixed surface charge.
3.     fs = surface potential (about 2ff).
4.     The Voltage on parallel plate capacitor.
5.     Additional ion implantation.

Body effect

1.     Reorganize threshold voltage equation:   
      Vt = Vt0 + DVt
2.     The threshold voltage is a function of source/substrate voltage Vsb.
3.     Body effect g is the coefficient for the Vsb dependence factor.

 

Example: threshold voltage of a transistor

Vt0 = Vfb + fs + Qb/Cox + VII
            
  = -0.91 V + 0.58 V + (1.4E-8/1.73E-7) + 0.92 V
  = 0.68 V

Body effect gn = sqrt(2qeSiNA/Cox) = 0.1
DVt = gn[sqrt(fs + Vsb) - sqrt(Vs)]
        = 0.16 V


MORE DEVICE PARAMETERS

1.     Process transconductance k’ = mCox.
2.     Device transconductance b = k’W/L.

CHANNEL LENGTH MODULATION LENGTH PARAMETER

a.     Describes a small dependence of drain current on Vds in saturation.
b.    The Factor is measured empirically.
c.      New drain current equation:
      Id = 0.5k’ (W/L)(Vgs - Vt2(l l Vds)
d.     Equation has a discontinuity between linear and saturation 
      regions---small enough to be ignored.

GATE VOLTAGE AND THE CHANNEL

 Basic transistor parasitics

a.     Gate to the substrate and Gate to source/drain.
b.     Source/drain capacitance, resistance.


c.     Gate capacitance Cg. Determined by active area.
d.     Source/drain overlap capacitances Cgs, Cgd
      Determined by source/gate and drain/gate overlaps. Independent of 
      transistor L.  Cgs = Col W
e.      Gate/bulk overlap capacitance.


LATCH-UP


a.     CMOS ICs have parasitic silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs).

b.     When powered up, SCRs can turn on, creating low-resistance path 
       from power to ground. Current can destroy the chip.

c.      Early CMOS problem. Can be solved with proper circuit/layout 
       structures.

Match after 33 years of immortality!


For the next 33 years in the Russian media, mogul Dmitry Itskov is seeking to create a mechanical immortality. This is completely out of holographic 'Human avatar'. For this group of scientist are appointed by the Itskov. For this project the world's leading mechanical brain is rich in rich man's help, he means. Itskov's demand, over the next 33 years will be achieved within a few steps cybernetic immortality. The first will be to create a robot that can be used to control the interface with the brain. Then, another robot will be created, which can replace the human brain. The next step will be to create another robot, a machine which imitates the human brain's biological brain. 

 Immortality
                                                         
And everyone will be created at the end of a holographic 'avatar', where the human intelligence. The financing to create for the project, Itskov wrote an open letter to the Forbes magazine world's top rich man according. They also wanted to achieve immortality, said his opened letter. Not only so, he expressed doubts about the performance of the project, its performance in front of them, and to take part in the project that they had declared. The day after 33 years mogul Dmitry Itskov will achieve immortality in the world.  For his declaration, interest has been created by the Russian media. Though Dmitry Itskov is the Russian media mogul, so sure but the issue of his personal life and the past period is very mysterious. At 2045, if the demand in Itskov cybernetic way to achieve immortality was successful, but the Hollywood movie 'surrogate' - The real story that will leave from cinema screen, it goes without saying.

Submitting your Sitemap file to Search Engines


While submitting your Sitemap to search engines (such as Google and Yahoo!) is not necessary, it does enable you to get more information about your store from search engine webmaster tools such as the Google Webmaster tools and Yahoo! Site Explorer.
Once you have enabled the Sitemap feature and published the Store Editor (to generate the sitemap.xml file), you can then submit your Sitemap file to Google and Yahoo!; at this time MSN does not have a feature for submitting a sitemap. You will need to copy the link to your Sitemap file and then go to the search engines to add the Sitemap.

To add your sitemap to Google:


1. From the Search Engines page, copy the link to your Sitemap file.
2. Sign in to your Google account.
3. Enter the URL for your site in the Add Site field (e.g., http://dailyallinformation.blogspot.com)
4. Click OK.
5. Click Add a Sitemap.
6. Select General Web Sitemap.
7. Select all of the checkboxes and paste or type the URL to your sitemap.xml file.
8. Click Add Web Sitemap.

To add your sitemap to Yahoo!:


1. From the Search Engines page, copy the link to your Sitemap file.
2. Sign in to your Yahoo! account.
3. Enter the URL for your site in the Submit Site feed field (e.g., http://dailyallinformation.blogspot.com)
4. Click Submit Feed.

Sunday, July 29, 2012

Mathematics, Science and Language Objectives

Mathematics


The student will
1. count tallys and convert to numbers
2. collect data by counting, adding and subtracting
3. make appropriate number comparisons
4. measure height in inches and centimeters to nearest 1/2 unit
5. write and solve original addition and subtraction problems that appropriately describe and compare lengths and volume
6. estimate linear measurements
7. make and read a graph summarizing collected data
8. identify and draw geometric shapes.

Science


The student will
1. describe several ways people change as they grow
2. identify and describe characteristics of the human body
3. using a body diagram:
   a. explain how the heart pumps blood throughout the body
   b. describe the functions of the liver, kidneys and skin
   c. locate and give function of muscles and bones
   d. describe the body parts that help digestion
   e. discuss the function of the brain
   f. describe the reproductive function of the body.

Language


The student will
1. read or refer to a favorite story or book on the human body
2. ask related questions on the human body
3. report verbally on a function of any of the human body parts
4. sequence the events of a body function
5. work with a peer to write an illustrated story about a body
function.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Physical Guideline when you use Laptop, Desktop, Notebook and Netbook

Physical Guideline for Using Computer

Hello,Welcome to my post.How are you? Today I will discuss a very important topic with you. Most of us have computer but most of us do not know the physical guideline for using the computer. We can do many sophisticated work using computer easily. It saves our time and make our work easy to do.The device is a blessing of modern science. It has advantages as well as disadvantages.Livelong hour after hour sitting in front of the computer because my problem is with the physical problems. The neck spandelaitis, back pain, foot pain, shoulder pain, I always heard these from the computer users.But what should be done to live? The people who work in the computer through the livelong multinational company is to work. But these medical problems and fear of what they leave a job? In some ways, you should not have to live. Now I tell you the ways through this you can save yourself from the physicals problems.


 Be Safe When Using The Computer : 

Important Steps.

1. Do not look at the computer screen for a long time.
2 .Every 10 minutes blink your eye. Blink in the comfort of your eye.
3. Sometimes give water spray in your eyes. 

4. Get up from the chair and go outside for five minutes at best.
5. Spin your neck - Left turn right. The neck should be exercising.
6. Keep the monitor to dim.
7. After a few minutes drink water.

Thank you for reading the post.

Monday, July 23, 2012

Make your Blog as an automatic income source


Blogging is one of the hobbies that most computer users have inside them. This is the most special and attractive and powerful way of expressing and communicating with other people around the globe. You can choose blogging as your own social media. You can attract people with your blog by expressing what’s on your mind. It’s that easy. According to its helpful activity and consequences, setting up a blog is so easy that you can make one in seconds!

Don’t think I’m just joking or advertising. I’m not hired or forced to advertise about blog. Right now you are also in my blog. I love blogging and I found it to be the most special and powerful way of attracting, communicating with people and expressing everything in my mind. I think you would like it, too. That’s why I suggest everyone not just to create a blog but also to be active in it.


Manage some times for your blog. If you have no time for something that doesn’t generate money, then it is OK. Your blog can even generate money for you. Yes, most of the people love gardening. They can earn money by selling the flowers boomed into their gardens if they want to generate money from it. In the same way, you can do it too. Your blog can be a money-maker. If you don’t believe, let’s have a look over these ways of earning money from your very personal blogs.

Affiliate Networks

This is something you can earn from. Put some advertises ..........(read more)

AdSense

This is the most preferred and most used way of earning money ......(read more)

PayPerPost (PPP)

PPP is the most special, most popular and the most preferred recommended company in the marketplace of earning money ..........(read more)

Affiliate Networks


This is something you can earn from. Put some advertises on your blog’s sidebar. It’s not really called advertise, it is like you are suggesting your people to buy or to sign up for something. You can earn a commission from that product. Your commission will be given according to the buyers/customers they gain from your blog.




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Ad Sense


This is the most preferred and most used way of earning money online. You can put third-party ads on your site, and adsense will count the “unique and real-users’ clicks” on those ads. The more people click on those ads shown in your site, the more money adsense will give you. This way of earning online through a blog or website is called Pay Per Click method. You can have more options on this method of earning by choosing different companies like AdBrite, BidVertiser (Recommended) etc.

Above-mentioned are the most preferred and most used methods of earning money from very own and personal blogs. If you have creativity in your [English] writing, then you can go furthermore for more. Here goes another industry of earning money online.